Precautions were taken to ensure that ALL items are appropriate for a wide range of children from diverse cultural, linguistic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. A panel of speech-language pathologists with expertise in the areas of language, literacy development, and assessment of diverse populations, reviewed the ALL test items for content and cultural bias.
ALL items were also submitted to statistical studies of group performance differences with regard to sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status based on the educational level of the primary caregiver/parent. Traditional bias analysis was conducted using both Mantel-Haenszel (Holland & Thayer, 1998) and item response theory (IRT) methods (Hambleton, 1993). Items that were considered biased were dropped from consideration for the final item sets of the assessment.